Rattan has becomes an important raw material of furniture production in the world. Rattan production is the largest source of foreign exchange in Indonesia because most of the world’s rattan needs come from Indonesia. Rattan export activities are very high and it can help the Indonesian economy. Nowadays, 90% of rattan production comes from nature while 10% comes from cultivation. Even rattan is available in the nature, rattan still must be maintained well.
Rattan is a non-timber plant that propagates in other plants. Asia is a producer of rattan in the world. In Southeast Asia there are 516 species of rattan which are then divided into 8 genera, namely, calamus, daemonorops, korthalsia, plectocomia, plectocomiopsis, calopspatha, bejaudia, and ceratolobus. There are two genera that have high economic value, calamus and daemonorops,
Indonesia is home for 306 species of rattan. There are 28 types of high-value rattan that are derived from calamus and daemonorops genera. Other types of rattan are still under development to find their benefits.
Type of rattan that belong to the calamus genera group is calamus manan miquel or known as manau rattan. The special characteristic of rattan is its stem is 2-5 cm in diameter, it has long stem and protected by sharp spines. This type of rattan is commonly used for materials of furniture making such as chairs, tables and beds.
Other types of rattan are sega rattan or calamus caesius also included in the main rattan category of the calamus genera. The special characteristic of this rattan is that it has a stem with a length reaching 50 m. This type of rattan used as raw material for rattan craft or binding the chair joints.
There is also a type of rattan that belongs to the genus daemonorops, namely batang susu rattan with the scientific name is daemonorops robusta warburg. This type of rattan lives in high areas and lives in groups. This type of batang susu rattan’s stem has a diameter about 2-8 cm and sharp spines. Batang susu rattan is often used as a raw material for furniture.
Besides batang susu rattan, the other rattan of daemonorops genera is a jernang besar rattan which has the scientific name daemonorops darco. This type of rattan grows in a group and has stems that extend to 15 m. Jernang besar rattan is often used for rigging or plaiting. The rattan of the daemonorops genera still loses in terms of quality with the rattan of the calamus genera.